**Table of contents**Show

**1 Hz is the natural reference frequency of healing music**

This sentence is the basis of the naturally pure tuning system.

C = 128 Hz is the concert pitch of natural music.

This tuning system can be understood mathematically and scientifically, but can also develop cosmic-spiritual dimensions for the learner. That depends on how far the researcher of the frequencies wants to get involved in the universal truth.

The important thing is: you don’t have to. The music based on 1 Hz (128 Hz is an octave of 1 Hz, 256 Hz is also an octave of 1 Hz) sounds even without theoretical knowledge. It is a natural sound because it is based on the series of natural tones (overtones).

The “promise of salvation” of 432 Hz is also kept in this tuning system, yes, even the solfeggio frequencies can be explained.

## Maria Renold

Anyone who deals with 128 HZ will come across Maria Renold very quickly. Your book „Intervals, Scales, Tones: And the Concert Pitch c = 128 Hz“ is, so to speak, the Bible of the 432 Hz and 128 Hz community. First, she deserves the thanks for frequency research.

Karl von Beitz writes in the preface:

“Even in antiquity, its tone laws always tried to redesign harmonious relationships. Not only because of the daily music-making, but because she wanted to find and organize the fate of humanity in the notes. And the right notes should be in harmony with the whole cosmos, the planets and the zodiac. Hearing in our time, we feel differently. To raise this to full consciousness is a much-tried pursuit. Only in listening, which we alone must apply as a “real” standard; then in precise clarification by calculating what is heard. In such work Maria Renold achieves the certainty of distinctions, examines countless hearing people, and refuses to give up taking Rudolf Steiner’s statements seriously, interpreting them, harmonizing them with one another. „

Maria Renold (1917-2003) spent her childhood in the United States, where her parents emigrated to found a eurythmy school in New York. She studied eurythmy and later violin and viola and toured with the Bush Chamber Orchestra and the Bush String Quartet. One of Maria Renold’s deeply-felt questions concerned the correct concert pitch. When she heard of Rudolf Steiner’s concert pitch suggestion of c = 128 Hz she put it into practice immediately, and experimented with it over many years in America and Europe. She also discovered a new method of tuning the piano, closer to the tuning of stringed instruments, arriving at the concert pitch of a4=432 Hz. First published in German in 1985, her book has become a modern classic of musical research.

## Scientific pitch

But there are other precursors of the concert pitch c = 128 Hz.

The variant became known as Scientific Pitch.

Joseph Sauveur (1653–1716) and later Chladni (1756–1827) proposed a C-based tuning, namely in such a way that a frequency with an oscillation period of exactly one second turns one C and each additional note C around the integer factor 2 (one octave) higher. The stroke C (c1 or c ′), which is eight octaves (factor 28) higher than a C of 1 Hz (C6), would have a frequency of 256 Hz (octave of 128 HZ).

In the second half of the 19th century, this proposal found increasing support in German-speaking countries and was scientifically discussed in well-known publications.

## Octaving

Understanding the octave is very important. The term concert pitch is often misleading. It is actually irrelevant, it only describes a common mood tone when tuning musical instruments with each other.

An octave means the doubling of a frequency.

If the reference frequency = 1 Hz = one oscillation per second, then the first octave has 2 x 1 = 2 Hz, the second 2 x 2 = 4 Hz, the third 2 x 4 = 8 Hz, the fourth 2 x 8 = 16 Hz, the fifth 2 x 16 Hz = 32 Hz, the sixth 2 x 32 = 64 Hz, the seventh 2 x 64 = 128 Hz and the eighth octave 2x 128 = 256 Hz.

Octave row:

0-1-2-4-8-16-32-64-128-256-512-1024-2048-4096-8192-16384-32768 ………

All octaves of a reference frequency are THE SAME TONE.

Maria Renold’s endeavor was to find a tuning for the piano that is based on the concert pitch C = 128 HZ, but which also has the concert pitch A = 432 HZ and with which 12 major keys can be wandered through.

She did an excellent job with the Maria Renold tuning.

The Natural Pure Tuning system does not claim to be able to play 12 major keys with a single tuning.

The Maria Renold tuning is ultimately a compromise, just like all other tuning systems.

Only the Natural Pure Tuning System follows the pure tuning. So the compromise-related detuning of some chords is not present here.

The universal frequency model of the Natural Pure Tuning System of music is based on the natural tone overtone series.

The natural tone series is a non-man-made phenomenon such as e.g. gravity, gravity, a natural universal truth.

It is an original essential element of the earth.

## Natural Overtone Series (Harmonic Series)

The overtone series is the basis of all tone systems because it is the only natural scale.

When a person hears tone sequences, they internally assemble them into small chords and then unconsciously compare them with the overtone series. The greater the agreement with the intervals of the overtone series, the more harmonious the music sounds.

This scale was not invented or found by man, but the overtone series arises directly from the laws of vibration. It follows a universal wave principle of the universe. Therefore it is of natural origin.

As soon as a tone sounds, overtones resonate. They all sound at the same time. So the overtone series is actually a chord. The structure is always the same and corresponds to a mathematical harmonic series. You don’t usually hear the overtones. Because they all vibrate as a chord at the same time, they appear to us like a single note.

Overtones (also partial or partial tones) are the components of almost every instrumental or vocal generated musical tone that also resonate with the fundamental tone. The lowest partial is called the fundamental and in most cases determines the perceived pitch, while the other partials, the overtones, influence the timbre.

While in the case of equal tuning, apart from the fundamental and its octaves, no tone exactly matches the partial tone series, the deviations are significantly less common in pure tuning.

The overtone series goes from an oscillation of about 16 HZ to over 40,000 HZ, so it has far more tones than the usual specification of 16 overtones.

## Maria Renold: Intervals, Scales, Tones: And the Concert Pitch c = 128 Hz

„First, the two names upper or natural tone series, which denote the same series of tones, should be explained.

It is called the natural tone series because its tones are formed “naturally” at least up to the 16th term if a fundamental tone is made to sound on one side. The name overtone series suggests that the tones that cause the interval sequence rise from the fundamental tone according to law. In this series, the oscillations of successive overtones always increase in the same way by the frequency of the fundamental or, in other words, the product of the number of overtone steps and the frequency of the fundamental gives the frequency of the respective overtone …

The 3rd overtone, for example, forms the interval 3: 2 with the second overtone, that is, the perfect fifth … .. The other intervals result in the same way, for example 2: 1 = octave, 3: 2 = fifth, 4: 3 = fourth, 5: 4 = natural major third, 6: 5 = natural minor third, 9: 8 = large whole tone, 10: 9 = small natural whole tone, 16:15 = natural half tone, 4: 1 or 8: 2 = Double octave, 45:32 = natural excessive fourth … .., 64:45 = natural diminished fifth and so on. „